NRC Identification and Analysis of Factors Affecting Emergency Evacuation
"This study examines the efficiency and effectiveness of public evacuations of 1,000 or more people, in response to natural disasters, technological hazards, and malevolent acts, occurring in the United States between January 1, 1990, and June 30, 2003. . . . Case study selection was based on a profiling and ranking scheme designed to identify evacuation incidents of sufficient complexity to challenge the local and regional emergency response capabilities. . . . This study revealed that large-scale evacuations in the United States, whether preplanned or ad hoc, are very effective and successfully save lives and reduce the potential number of injuries associated with the hazard." The study focused on evacuations that involved larger populations; occurred in urban areas; dealt with technological hazards; involved special circumstances, such as evacuation of schools, hospitals or nursing homes; and were located near nuclear power plants. These evacuations involved hurricanes, the Sept. 11 attack on lower Manhattan, and rail and other transportation, including the 2001 Baltimore tunnel fire.